Largest Submarine in the World - Typhoon
Largest Submarine in the World - Typhoon During the Cold War the Typhoon submarines prowled the waters of the North Atlantic. These submarines do not have to submerge or go to sea to launch their long-range missiles. They are able to do so tied up at their docks. The Typhoon is the world's largest submarine and was one of the most feared weapons of the Cold War. Each submarine is capable of carrying twenty long-range ballistic missiles with up to 200 nuclear warheads that were once aimed at the United States. NATO apparently derived the name 'Typhoon' from a 1974 speech by Leonid Brezhnev which mentioned a new SSBN called the "Tayfun". In fact, the Russian name for the class is "Akula" -- "Shark" -- which should not be confused with NATO's "Akula" SSN (which the Russians designate as "Bars"). The design of the Typhoon submarine is multi-hulled and bears resemblance to a catamaran. The submarine has two separate pressure hulls with a diameter of 7.2 m each, five inner habitable hulls and 19 compartments. The pressure hulls are arranged parallel to each other and symmetrical to a centerplane. The missile compartment is arranged in the upper part of the bow between the pressure hulls. Both hulls and all compartments are connected by transitions. The pressure hulls, the centerplane and the torpedo compartment are made of titanium and the outer light hull is made of steel. A protected module, comprising the main control room and electronic equipment compartment, is arranged behind the missile silos above the main hulls in a centerplane under the guard of retractable devices. The submarine's design includes features to enable it to both travel under ice and for ice-breaking. It has an advanced stern fin with horizontal hydroplane fitted after the screws. The nose horizontal hydroplanes are in the bow section and are retractable into the hull. The retractable systems include two periscopes (one for the commander and one for general use), radio sextant, radar, radio communications, navigation and direction-finder masts. They are housed within the sail guard. The sail and sail guard have a reinforced rounded cover for ice-breaking. The submarine is equipped with the D-19 launch system with 20 solid-fuel propellant R-39 missiles which have a range of up to 10,000 km. They are arranged in silos in two rows in front of the sail between the main hulls. The Typhoon has an automated torpedo and missile loading system including 6 torpedo tubes with calibres of 650 and 533 mm. The Typhoons are equipped with the "Slope" hydroacoustic system that consists of four hydroacoustic stations. The "Slope" system allows to track 10-12 vessels simultaneously. It also employs two floating antenna buoys to receive radio messages, target designation data and satellite navigation signals at great depth and under an ice cover. The Typhoon submarines were initially intended to be retrofitted with a replacement of the D-19 launch system with an advanced system, and the new SS-N-28 Bark missile. The lead unit of this class, the TK-208 Dmitry Donskoi, had been in overhaul since 1992 with the intent of receiving these modifications. The Navy CinC Kuroedov had personally ordered arming the subs with the new missile Bark, created by Miasskoe KB named after Makeeva. The new missile was 2cm thicker and the launchers of Dmitry Donskoi had to be remade, which cost RUB10b. The SS-N-28 Bark was already in the test stage, when the Navy refused from the missile in favor of the new designer, the Moscow Teplotechnika Institute. The institute was engaged in ground based Topol missiles and actively lobbied by the Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov. The navy decided to remake Dmitry Donskoi for the new missile Bulava. The missile is being developed and the most optimistic forecasts commission it in 2005-2007 at the earliest. RUB6.5b was already spent on Bulava.
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